Sleep is crucial in the long-term formation of episodic memories, and nonrapid eye movement theta activity is important in human memory consolidation


Non-rapid eye movement sleep boosts hippocampus-dependent, long-term memory formation more so than wake. Studies have pointed to several electrophysiological events that likely play a role in this process, including thalamo-cortical sleep spindles (12-15Hz). However, interventional studies that directly probe the causal role of spindles in consolidation are scarce.